They were recognized in by the state of New Jersey as the Ramapough Lenape Nation but are not federally recognized. Others have claimed they descend from peoples of varying degrees of TuscaroraAfricanand Dutch and other European ancestry, but lack the evidence. The Lenape language in this area was Munseean Algonquian dialect. The Tuscarora spoke an Iroquoian language. Today they speak English.How to Prove Native American/Indian Ancestry - Ancestry
The Ramapough and two other tribes were recognized as Indian tribes in by the state of New Jersey by Resolution The New Jersey citation read:. The tribe approached its New Jersey Assembly member, W.
Cary Edwardsto seek state recognition.Common dry lubricant
It passed the Assembly and was passed by the Senate on January 7, Edwards later said that debate in the assembly related to the Cohen book see below ; he noted that he and other supporters of recognition had to demonstrate the historical basis of the Ramapough. At the time, the state had not developed its own criteria or regulations related to tribal recognition. The state resolution also called for Federal recognition of the Ramapough, but is non-binding in that regard.
It recognized the Shinnecock and one other tribe under independent criteria. In the New York legislature had a bill pending to recognize the Ramapough people as Native Americans.
They did not submit a documented petition until April 23, During the process, it repeatedly offered to have representatives meet with the tribe to review avenues of research, specifically court records and land deeds, for the period in which records are scarce. The RMI submitted a partial response on January 28, A fully revised petition was determined to be ready for active consideration on March 5, The petition was placed on active consideration status on July 14, In Decemberthe BIA issued its proposed finding, rejecting the tribe's petition.
It granted the tribe an opportunity to respond, including extensions. It issued its Final Determination rejecting its petition on December 11, This survived an internal BIA appeal in and a federal court appeal in Until the s, the tribe was frequently referred to as the Jackson Whites, a term considered derogatory,  which, according to legend, was either from the name of the Jackson White heirloom potato  or shorthand for "Jacks and Whites", reflecting their multiracial ancestry.
Over time, the latter were believed to have included Dutch settlers reflected in surnames common among the people and later, Hessian soldiersGerman mercenaries who had fought for the British during the American Revolution ; that is, people who were considered suspect by the dominant British Americans. Thousands of escaped slaves had gone to British-occupied New York City on the promise of freedom. Some left the city for more isolated areas to escape capture after the war.
There is no documentation of slaves, freed or runaway, nor of Hessian soldiers' marrying into the tribe. The group rejects this name and its associated legends as pejorative.Unfortunately, for non-indigenous family historians who believe they might have First Nations bloodlines, and who are not connected to a particular indigenous group it can be difficult to know where to even start to trace their lines.
This has led to individuals — by choice or imposition — carrying multiple surnames over a lifetime. In some cases individuals have carried indigenous surnames, then Westernized surnames for one or all documents and then back again to their original surnames. In other cases the Westernized surnames themselves change from one language to another e. Pierre becoming Peter.
The second layer of difficulty is that Native surnames were transcribed phonetically which leads to spelling variations in the various official documents that is, between different church registers, census documents, border crossings etc. Latest Additions. January 6, - Posted by Evelyn Yvonne Theriault. Like Like. Comment by Debbie May 6, Reply. I do not have any in my own databases but they may pop up as I continue extracting new marriages.
Comment by Frank Mesick April 25, Reply. I am trying to find out the truth about my family roots. Like Liked by 1 person. Comment by kim bremer July 2, Reply. Kim, If you e-mail me EChand aol. Tremblay: I have nothing sure to share right now but just this: the name Tremblay may be associated with the Innu nation Montagnais so called ; many french canadians in the Nitassinan Innu country are related to the Innut, many having the name Tremblay.
Ayotte: I met once a young man who had this family name and was a Huron-Wyandot metis in Quebec city.Sonic world dx demo
Savage: probably a nick name that became a family name; too often, priests would not accept any native name and would give sauvage or sauvagesse as identification to a native in the parish registration files when they did not choose arbitrary french names. Have you tried to reach genealocical societies in Quebec?
Comment by Frank Mesick December 6, Reply. Comment by steve October 13, Reply.Q370 hackintosh
A 23 and me test is not necessary. We all derived from Pierre Tremblay, Circa Comment by Ed Chandler October 13, Reply. My great grandfather Joseph Narcisse or Narcisse Jo. Comment by Leslie Souve' February 6, Reply.
I too am a Tremblay, whose family is originally from Quebec. Sauvage is also in my family tree. Perhaps we have relatives.The Lenape have a matrilineal clan system and historically were matrilocal.Arcadyan wiki
During the decades of the 18th century, most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies. Their dire situation was exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. In the s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in Oklahomawith some communities living also in Wisconsin and Ontario.
Removal History of the Delaware Tribe
The name Lenni Lenape, also Leni Lenape and Lenni Lenapi, comes from their autonym, Lenniwhich may mean "genuine, pure, real, original," and Lenapemeaning "real person" or "original person"  cf. Anishinaabein which -naabecognate with Lenapemeans "man" or "male" [ citation needed ]. The Lenape, when first encountered by Europeans, were a loose association of related peoples who spoke similar languages and shared familial bonds in an area known as Lenapehoking the Lenape traditional territory, which spanned what is now eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Lower New York, and eastern Delaware.
The tribe's common name Delaware is not of Native American origin. The English then began to call the Lenape the Delaware Indians because of where they lived. Swedes also settled in the area, and early Swedish sources listed the Lenape as the Renappi. Traditional Lenape lands, the Lenapehokingwas a large territory that encompassed the Delaware Valley of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey from the north bank Lehigh River along the west bank Delaware then south into Delaware and the Delaware Bay.
MB’s First Residents: The Lenape
On the west side, the Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the waterways, and likely shared the hunting territory of the Schuylkill River watershed with the rival Iroquoian Susquehannock.
The Unami and Munsee languages belong to the Eastern Algonquian language group. Although the Unami and Munsee speakers people are related, they consider themselves as distinct, as they used different words and lived on opposite sides of the Kitatinny Mountains of modern New Jersey. The German and English-speaking Moravian missionary John Heckewelder wrote: "The Monsey tong [ sic ] is quite different even though [it and Lenape] came out of one parent language.
William Pennwho first met the Lenape instated that the Unami used the following words: "mother" was anna"brother" was isseemus"friend" was netap. Next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect; and ultimately, with all those in the surrounding area who spoke mutually comprehensible languages, including the Nanticoke peoplewho lived to their south and west in present western Delaware and eastern Maryland, and the Munsee, who lived to their north.
The Lenape have three clans, each of which historically had twelve sub-clans: . Lenape kinship system has matrilineal clans, that is, children belong to their mother's clan, from which they gain social status and identity. The mother's eldest brother was more significant as a mentor to the male children than was their father, who was generally of another clan. Hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line,  and women elders could remove leaders of whom they disapproved.
Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Families were matrilocal ; newlywed couples would live with the bride's family, where her mother and sisters could also assist her with her growing family. Bywhen William Penn arrived to his American commonwealth, the Lenape had been so reduced by disease, famine, and war that the sub-clan mothers had reluctantly resolved to consolidate their families into the main clan family.During that era of segregation, such a remark was not only a crude joke, but relegated the target to the second-class colored community.
Since before the Civil War, Delawareans who claimed Indian ancestry had been accused, by both whites and blacks, of being nothing more than blacks seeking special treatment.
In fact, the so-called Delaware Moors identified themselves as Moors as early as the 19 th century, if not earlier.
In the hundreds of Indian River, Lewes and Rehoboth and Dagsborough are a numerous class of colored people, commonly called yellow men, and by many believed to be descendants of the Indians, which formerly inhabited this country. Others regard them as mulattoes and still others claim that they are of Moorish descent.
From the fact that so many of them bear the name of Sockum, that term has also been applied to the entire class of people. Of their genealogy, Judge George P. Fisher said:. Among them was a tall, fine-looking young man about five and twenty years. This man was called Requa, and was remarkable for his manly proportions and regular features, being more Caucasian than African.
Requa was purchased by a young Irish widow, having red hair, blue eyes and fair complexion. She afterwards married him. At that time the Nanticoke Indians were still quite numerous at and near Indian River.
The offspring of Requa and his Irish wife were not recognized in the white society, and they would not associate with the negroes, and they did associate and intermarry with the Indians. The question upon which the case turned was whether Harman really was a free mulatto, and the genealogy of that race of people was traced by Lydia Clark, then about eighty-seven years of age, who was of the same race of people.
The name Requa or Regua is now handed down as Ridgeway.
Lenape Submitted Names
The exclusiveness spoken of continues to the present time. This class of people maintains its separate social life so far as it is possible to do so seldom intermarrying with the negroes or mulattoes, and support separate churches.
The number in the county is diminishing, owning to removals and natural causes but enough remain to make it a distinctive element.
Interestingly, Fisher wrote an article for the Milford Herald in which offers a somewhat different version of the story which was picked up by numerous newspapers across the country around that time. The Roanoke Times, Virginia; July 27, When I was a boy and young man, the general impression prevailing in the several parts of this State where this race of people had settled was that they had sprung from some Spanish Moors who, by chance, had drifted from the southern coast of Spain prior to the Revolutionary War and settled at various points on the Atlantic Coast of the British colonies; but exactly where and when, nobody could tell.
This story of their genesis seemed to have originated with, or at any rate, was adopted by the last Chief Justice, Thomas Clayton, whose great learning and research gave semblance of authority to it, and, like almost everybody else, I accepted it as the true one for many years, although my father, who was born and reared in that portion of Sussex County where these people were more numerous than in any other part of the State, always insisted that they were an admixture of Indian, negro and white man, and gave his reason therefore—that he had always so understood from Noke Norwood, whom I knew when I was a small boy.
Willis, our able and popular Representative in Congress. I well remember with what awe I contemplated his gigantic form when I first beheld him. My father had known him as a boy, and I never passed his cabin without stopping. He was a dark, copper-colored man, about six feet and half in height, of splendid proportions, perfectly straight, coal black hair though at least 75 years oldblack eyes and high cheek bones.
Fisher was born inso according to him, a legend concerning Spanish Moors settling on the coast prior to the Revolution was widely known in Delaware during his youth — say, s — InWilliam H.
There are two remnants of Indian population in eastern Delaware, not far from the coast — the so-called Moors of Kent county and the more southerly Nanticokes on Indian river in Sussex county. Of the former I can speak by report only, not having visited them.
According to an old legend they are the offspring of Moors shipwrecked near Lewes; a more romantic version gives them only one Moorish progenitor — a captive prince who escaped from his floating prison and found wife and home among the half-Indian population alongshore. There are said to be two or three hundred of these people, clustering mainly around Chesholm, a hamlet and railroad station a few miles south of Dover.
The Philadelphia Press for December 1 st, presents a series of portraits which, if accurate, go far to sustain the contention of the Nanticokes that there is not much in common between the two peoples; but their intercourse is too slight and infrequent for their judgment to be conclusive.
They consider the Chesholm people to be a mixture of Delaware Indians with some Moorish or other foreign strain. According to their tradition the Nanticoke and Delaware tribes were often at war in the old time, and even yet there would seem to be a barrier of rather more than indifference between them.From a history.
The native red men found in the State belonged to the general family known as the Lenni-Lenape or Delawares, who comprised in all about forty tribes and were so ancient and extended in range as to have been acknowledged by other tribes as the "original people," and bore the familiar name of the "Grandfathers" of the red men. Of this great Indian family, the tribe of Nanticokes, or "Tide-water people" occupied the lower part of Delaware and the eastern shore of Maryland, and were distinctively a fishing and trapping people rather than great hunters or warriors.
Among the hills of northern Delaware dwelt kindred tribes of the same great race who were proud to own as their chief the renowned and noble Tamanand, whose most permanent residence is believed to have been in the northerly vicinity of Wilmington.
Although the first European settlement in lower Delaware was cut off by the savages in revenge for the white man's hasty violence, subsequent dealings with the red men were peaceable and prosperous. The Swedes who settled here seven years after the massacre of the De Vries colony, anticipated Penn's just and kind treatment of the Indians and lived ever in unbroken friendship with them. All the tribes disappeared from the State during the first half of the last century, the last remnant of the Nanticokes having left the neighborhood of Laurel, in Sussex County, in the spring of Baker, of Selbyville, on his annual visit to the tribe, September Before Delaware was settled by European colonists, the area was home to the Eastern Algonquian tribes known as the Unami Lenape or Delaware throughout the Delaware valley, and the Nanticoke along the rivers leading into the Chesapeake Bay.
They had a settled hunting and agricultural society, and they rapidly became middlemen in an increasingly frantic fur trade with their ancient enemy, the Minqua or Susquehannock. With the loss of their lands on the Delaware River and the destruction of the Minqua by the Iroquois of the Five Nations in the s, the remnants of the Lenape left the region and moved over the Alleghany Mountains by the midth century.
The Lenape were largely a sedentary people who occupied campsites seasonally, resulting in relatively easy access to the small game that inhabited the region: fish, birds, shellfish and deer. They developed sophisticated techniques of hunting and managing their resources. By the arrival of Europeans, the Lenape were cultivating fields of vegetation through the slash and burn technique, which extended the productive life of planted fields.
They also harvested vast quantities of fish and shellfish from the bays of the area. The success of these methods allowed the tribe to maintain a larger population than nomadic hunter-gatherers were able to support.
Other Lenape bands remained scattered in their own traditional lands or along the westward routes, where their descendents still live today. The Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians are often said to be extinct.
This is not true--there are 11, Lenape people in Oklahoma, where they were sent by the US government which only recently stopped incorrectly classifying them as Cherokeesand another Lenape Indian descendents in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
English translation - common, original or real people. Delaware: The English named the river our ancestors lived along after Lord De La Warr and called the people by the same name.
Turtle, Wolf, Turkey: These are the three clans of the Lenape people. Peace Pipe: Represents our history as leaders in peace. Cross: Represents our history in religion.University of Nebraska Press, The Delaware Tribe is one of many contemporary tribes that descend from the Unami- and Munsee-speaking peoples of the Delaware and Hudson River valleys.
Munsee and Unami are two closely related Algonquian dialects that were easily distinguishable from the languages of the other coastal Algonquian groups Goddard Munsee was the Algonquian dialect spoken in the villages along the upper Delaware and lower Hudson rivers while the Unami dialect that contained southern and northern variants existed along the lower Delaware river.
The material culture differences between the Proto-Munsee and Proto-Unami villagers of the Hudson and Delaware valleys can be recognized as early AD 10, suggesting an antiquity in the cultural barriers between the Unami and Munsee speakers Kraft The name collectively attributed to the descendants of such Unami and Munsee people is Delaware, yet the word Delaware is not of indigenous origin, nor did the Munsee and Unami speakers conceive of themselves as a united political organization until the eighteenth century.
When Captain Samuel Argall first explored what would later be named the Delaware Bay and River, he chose the name Delaware to honor the newly appointed Virginia governor Kraft European colonists later applied the term in varied dialectical forms to reference the Unami-speaking groups of the middle Delaware River valley, and by the late eighteenth century the term had been extended to include all of the Unami-and Munsee-speaking peoples living in or removed from the Delaware and Hudson River valleys Goddard; Weslager Most Delaware in eastern Oklahoma descend from such Unami speakers, with only a minority who count Munsee descent as well Today, the southern Unami dialect is the language learned and used by the Delaware in eastern Oklahoma, and Delaware is the tribal name used by most tribal members, with Lenape as an often used synonym.
Map by Rebecca Dobbs. The British subsequently established new settlements or renamed existing Dutch villages, and the growing number of English immigrants arriving in the late seventeenth century put further pressure on the Unami and Munsee to cede more land Weslager Two centuries of European encroachment ultimately led to the removal of the Unami and Munsee speakers from the Delaware and Hudson River valleys to the frontier of English occupation.
The allied Six Nations and the English combined forces in the eighteenth century and relied upon misleading treaty agreements and the threat of military force to ultimately push the Unami and Munsee people to abandon their remaining homelands and move west.
By the mid-eighteenth century, the majority of Munsee and Unami speakers had joined several villages along the Susquehanna, Allegheny, and Ohio rivers and were by then referred to collectively as the Delaware Goddard Other displaced coastal and interior Algonquians such as the Shawnee, Conoy, and Nanticoke often joined the Delaware villages on the frontier Weslager ; Goddard The refugees were then settled within territory claimed by the Iroquois, and the newly arrived residents were obliged to live as protectorates of the Six Nations Weslager The Iroquois and the English subsequently pressured the Delaware groups to name a king who could represent the different villages and with whom the colonial government could engage treaty negotiations Weslager Though paramount leaders were named for the displaced villagers, it is clear that such designated Delaware chiefs of the eighteenth century held a somewhat tenuous authority over the entirety of their people A.
Wallace ; Weslager ; Goddard As the independent Munsee and Unami bands coalesced in frontier villages, the political life of such groups followed a pattern by which the independent village sachems centralized under a clan-based governing body.Native People of New Jersey. They were a people with a strong sense of tradition Lenape Wedding and a well organized life-style. Unfortunately, they did not survive long after the arrival of the Europeans. Conflict between the cultures led to hostile wars.
The European need to own the land and the diseases, guns and alcohol they brought with them created an impossible situation for the survival of the Lenni-Lenape in their homeland. The life-style was strange to the Europeans, but was based on adaptation to the environment of New Jersey. Rather similar to the current movement from the cities to the shore for the summer.
The Lenni-Lenape traveled with the seasons, making full use of the area resources. During the spring the planted gardens around their permanent settlements. In the summer, they went to the shore to catch oysters and clams and stay cool. In the fall, they would move back to their village and harvest their crops. In the winter, they hunted deer and other animals. New research as to the accuracy of the seasonal traveling has come to my attention.
I hope to be hearing more and posting some information soon. The Lenni-Lenape were part of the Algonquin nation. Some of the other tribes scorned them for their peaceful ways.
The Iroquois called them "The Old Women. The Map above is from the Cumberland County Library Site, where they have done an online publication of:.
The Lenni-Lenape were organized into three subtribes:. In the North, were the Minsi "the people of the stony country" In the Central area, were the Unami "the people down the river" In the South, were the Unilachtigo "the people who lived near the ocean" Each subtribe had a sub-chief sakima and the Lenni-Lenape usually considered the Unami sakimi to be chief of all subtribes.
From the map you can see where the trails were that they used to move between their villages and their summer residences. Many of the trails would became the early highway system for the Europeans. Contact with the "whites" was sporadic until the early 's. The Dutch traders had no respect for the native population and treated them with contempt, even looking upon them as possible slaves.
Their attitude, however, did not prevent them from engaging in trading rum and guns for pelts and furs. The worst event in relations was the slaughter at Pavonia on February 25, The director-general of New Netherlands ordered "an assault on a large group of Indians encamped at Pavonia, to wipe their chops and drive away and destroy the savages. It was a horrible massacre. Eleven tribes of the Iroquois nation banded together in retaliation.
Retaliation took place from the Raritan River to the Connecticut River. A truce was finally secured in Ten years later, another war was set off, when "a Dutchman killed an Indian girl who was in one of his trees getting a pear. The captives were ransomed. The lead and powder received as part of the ransom put the Dutch in a helpless position if war were to break out again.
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